- Hugh E. Williams , Justin Zobel, Searchable Words on the Web, International Journal of Digital Libraries, 2001.
In designing data structures for text databases, it is valuable to know how many different words are likely to be encountered in a particular collection. For example, vocabulary accumulation is central to index construction for text database systems; it is useful to be able to estimate the space requirements and performance characteristics of the main-memory data structures used for this task. However, it is not clear how many distinct words will be found in a text collection or whether new words will continue to appear after inspecting large volumes of data. We propose practical definitions of a word, and investigate new word occurrences under these models in a large text collection. We inspected around two billion word occurrences in 45 gigabytes of world-wide web documents, and found just over 9.74 million different words in 5.5 million documents; overall, 1 word in 200 was new. We observe that new words continue to occur, even in very large data sets, and that choosing stricter definitions of what constitutes a word has only limited impact on the number of new words found.
- Jimmy Lin, Scalable language processing algorithms for the masses: A case study in computing word co-occurrence matrices with MapReduce, In Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP
2008), pages 419-428, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2008.
This paper explores the challenge of scaling up language processing algorithms to increasingly large datasets. While cluster computing has been available in commercial environments for several years, academic researchers have fallen behind in their ability to work on large datasets. I discuss two barriers contributing to this problem: lack of a suitable programming model for managing concurrency and difficulty in obtaining access to hardware. Hadoop, an open-source implementation of Google’s MapReduce framework, provides a compelling solution to both issues. Its simple programming model hides system-level details from the developer, and its ability to run on commodity hardware puts cluster computing within the reach of many academic research groups. This paper illustrates these points with a case study in building word cooccurrence matrices from large corpora. I conclude with an analysis of an alternative computing model based on renting instead of buying computer clusters.
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