solaris - find (1)

     find - find files

     find path...expression


     The find command recursively descends the directory  hierar-
     chy for each path seeking files that match a Boolean expres-
     sion written in the primaries given below.

     find will be able to descend to arbitrary depths in  a  file
     hierarchy  and  will not fail due to path length limitations
     (unless a path operand specified by the application  exceeds
     PATH_MAX requirements).

     The following operands are supported:

     path           a path name of a starting point in the direc-
                    tory hierarchy.

     The first argument that starts with a -, or is a ! or  a  (,
     and  all  subsequent  arguments  will  be  interpreted as an
     expression made up of the following primaries and operators.
     In  the  descriptions, wherever n is used as a primary argu-
     ment, it will be interpreted as a decimal integer optionally
     preceded by a plus (+) or minus (-) sign, as follows:

     +n             more than n
     n              exactly n
     -n              less than n.

     Valid expressions are:

     -atime n        True if the file was accessed  n  days  ago.
                    The  access  time  of  directories in path is
                    changed by find itself.

     -cpio device    Always true; write the current file on  dev-
                    ice in cpio format (5120-byte records).

     -ctime n        True if the file's status was changed n days

     -depth          Always true; causes descent of the directory
                    hierarchy to be done so that all entries in a
                    directory are acted on before  the  directory
                    itself.  This can be useful when find is used
                    with cpio(1) to transfer files that are  con-
                    tained  in  directories without write permis-

     -exec command   True if the executed command returns a  zero
                    value  as  exit  status.   The end of command
                    must be punctuated by an  escaped  semicolon.
                    A  command  argument  {}  is  replaced by the
                    current path name.

     -follow         Always true; causes  symbolic  links  to  be
                    followed.   When  following  symbolic  links,
                    find keeps track of the  directories  visited
                    so  that  it  can  detect infinite loops; for
                    example, such a loop would occur  if  a  sym-
                    bolic  link  pointed  to  an  ancestor.  This
                    expression should not be used with the - type
                    l expression.

     -fstype type    True if the filesystem  to  which  the  file
                    belongs is of type type.

     -group gname    True if the file belongs to the group gname.
                    If  gname  is  numeric and does not appear in
                    the /etc/group file, it is taken as  a  group

     -inum n         True if the file has inode number n.

     -links n        True if the file has n links.

     -local          True if the file system type is not a remote
                    file   system   type   as   defined   in  the
                    /etc/dfs/fstypes file.  nfs is  used  as  the
                    default   remote   filesystem   type  if  the
                    /etc/dfs/fstypes file is not present.

     -ls            Always  true;  prints   current   path   name
                    together   with  its  associated  statistics.
                    These include (respectively):

                    o  inode number
                    o  size in kilobytes (1024 bytes)
                    o  protection mode
                    o  number of hard links
                    o  user
                    o  group
                    o  size in bytes
                    o  modification time.

                    If the file is a special file the size  field
                    will instead contain the major and minor dev-
                    ice numbers.

                    If the file is a symbolic link  the  pathname
                    of  the linked-to file is printed preceded by
                    `->'.  The format is identical to that of  ls
                    -gilds (see ls(1)).

                    Note: Formatting is done internally,  without
                    executing the ls program.

     -mount          Always true; restricts  the  search  to  the
                    file  system  containing the directory speci-
                    fied.  Does not list mount  points  to  other
                    file systems.

     -mtime n        True if the file's data was modified n  days

     -name pattern   True if pattern  matches  the  current  file
                    name.   Normal  shell  file  name  generation
                    characters  (see  sh(1))  may  be  used.    A
                    backslash  (\) is used as an escape character
                    within the pattern.  The  pattern  should  be
                    escaped  or  quoted when find is invoked from
                    the shell.

     -ncpio device   Always true; write the current file on  dev-
                    ice in cpio -c format (5120 byte records).

     -newer file     True if the current file has  been  modified
                    more recently than the argument file.

     -nogroup        True if the file belongs to a group  not  in
                    the /etc/group file.

     -nouser         True if the file belongs to a  user  not  in
                    the /etc/passwd file.

     -ok command     Like -exec except that the generated command
                    line  is  printed with a question mark first,
                    and is executed only if the user responds  by
                    typing y.

     -perm [-]mode    The mode argument is used to represent file
                    mode bits.  It will be identical in format to
                    the  <symbolicmode>  operand   described   in
                    chmod(1), and will be interpreted as follows.
                    To start, a template will be assumed with all
                    file mode bits cleared.  An op symbol of:

                    +    will set the appropriate  mode  bits  in
                         the template;

                    -     will clear the appropriate bits;

                    =    will  set  the  appropriate  mode  bits,
                         without  regard  to the contents of pro-
                         cess' file mode creation mask.

                    The op symbol of - cannot be the first  char-
                    acter of mode; this avoids ambiguity with the
                    optional leading hyphen.  Since  the  initial
                    mode  is all bits off, there are not any sym-
                    bolic modes that need to use - as  the  first

                    If the hyphen is omitted,  the  primary  will
                    evaluate  as  true  when  the file permission
                    bits exactly match the value of the resulting

                    Otherwise, if mode is prefixed by  a  hyphen,
                    the primary will evaluate as true if at least
                    all the bits in the  resulting  template  are
                    set in the file permission bits.

     -perm [-]onum    True if the file permission  flags  exactly
                    match  the  octal number onum (see chmod(1)).
                    If onum is prefixed by a minus sign (-), only
                    the  bits  that  are set in onum are compared
                    with  the  file  permission  flags,  and  the
                    expression evaluates true if they match.

     -print          Always true; causes the current path name to
                    be printed.

     -prune          Always yields  true.   Do  not  examine  any
                    directories  or files in the directory struc-
                    ture below the pattern just matched.  See the
                    examples, below.

     -size n[c]      True if the file is n blocks long (512 bytes
                    per  block).   If  n  is followed by a c, the
                    size is in bytes.

     -type c         True if the type of the file is c,  where  c
                    is  b,  c,  d,  l,  p, or f for block special
                    file, character special file, directory, sym-
                    bolic link, fifo (named pipe), or plain file,

     -user uname     True if the file belongs to the user  uname.
                    If  uname is numeric and does not appear as a
                    login name in the  /etc/passwd  file,  it  is
                    taken as a user ID.

     -xdev           Same as the -mount primary.

  Complex Expressions
     The primaries may be combined using the following  operators
     (in order of decreasing precedence):

          1)   ( expression )      True  if   the   parenthesized
                                   expression       is       true
                                   (parentheses  are  special  to
                                   the    shell   and   must   be

          2)   ! expression        The negation of a  primary  (!
                                   is the unary not operator).

          3)   expression [-a] expression
                                   Concatenation   of   primaries
                                   (the  and operation is implied
                                   by the  juxtaposition  of  two

          4)   expression -o expression
                                   Alternation of primaries ( - o
                                   is the or operator).

     Note:  When you use find in conjunction with  cpio,  if  you
     use  the  - L option with cpio then you must use the -follow
     expression with find and vice versa.  Otherwise  there  will
     be undesirable results.

     If no expression is present, -print  will  be  used  as  the
     expression.   Otherwise,  if  the  given expression does not
     contain any of the primaries -exec, -ok or -print, the given
     expression will be effectively replaced by:

          ( given_expression ) -print

     The -user, -group, and -newer primaries each  will  evaluate
     their respective arguments only once.

     The following commands are equivalent:

          example% find .
          example% find . -print

     They both write out the entire directory hierarchy from  the
     current directory.

     Remove all files in your home directory named a.out or  * .o
     that have not been accessed for a week:

          example% find $HOME \( -name a.out -o -name '*.o' \
               -atime +7 \ -exec rm {} \;

     Recursively print all file names in  the  current  directory
     and below, but skipping SCCS directories:

          example% find . -name SCCS -prune -o -print

     Recursively print all file names in  the  current  directory
     and  below,  skipping  the contents of SCCS directories, but
     printing out the SCCS directory name:

          example% find . -print -name SCCS -prune

     The following command is roughly  equivalent  to  the   - nt
     extension to test(1):

          example$ if [ -n "$(find file1 -prune -newer file2)" ]; then
               printf %s\\n "file1 is newer than file2"

     The descriptions of -atime, -ctime, and -mtime use the  ter-
     minology   n  ``24-hour  periods''.   For  example,  a  file
     accessed at 23:59 will be selected by:

          example% find . -atime -1 -print

     at 00:01 the next day (less than 24 hours  later,  not  more
     than one day ago); the midnight boundary between days has no
     effect on the 24-hour calculation.

     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the execution of find:  LC_COLLATE,

     The following exit values are returned:
     0         All path operands were traversed successfully.
     >0        An error occurred.

     /etc/passwd         password file
     /etc/group          group file
     /etc/dfs/fstypes    file  that  registers  distributed  file
                         system packages

     chmod(1),  ls(1),   sh(1),   test(1),   stat(2),   umask(2),

     The following options are obsolete and will not be supported
     in future releases:

     -cpio device   Always true; write the current file on device
                    in cpio format (5120-byte records).

     -ncpio device  Always true; write the current file on device
                    in cpio -c format (5120 byte records).

     When using find to determine files modified within  a  range
     of  time,  one must use the ?time argument before the -print
     argument otherwise find will give all files.